Genetic engineering Techniques

Genetic engineering or recombinant DNA technology involves many techniques, basically to cut apart and splice together, to multiply or to insert the gene of interest. Genetic engineering techniques are primarily used for highly sophisticated manipulations of heredity material and some other biologically important chemicals.

Here we have listed some of these techniques with their main purpose or function. These techniques can also be referred as tools or methods of genetic engineering. For details visit the respective page.

Genetic engineering Techniques or Tools or Methods Main Purpose or Function
Restriction Enzymes To cut DNA, as per the requirement at specific point
DNA Ligase To splice DNA pieces together
Other modifying enzymes (phosphatases, kinase) In vitro, precise modification of DNA fragments to add, remove or alter the original DNA structure.
DNA Polymerases To synthesize DNA from a pre-existing template
Vectors To carry genetic material into target cell
Plasmids, Bacteriophages (phages) These are commonly used vectors
Genetic Markers Transformed cell identification
Gene transfer Transfer of gene to a living cell. This can be done using various techniques.
PCR Amplification of small fragments of DNA
DNA probes Identification and labeling of piece of DNA with certain sequence.
Electrophoresis Separation of fragments of DNA
cDNA DNA from a mature mRNA template
Shotgun To search for a particular gene in a whole genome
Gene synthesis Synthesizing gene from a scratch
DNA sequencing To read base sequence of a DNA fragment provided
Antisense genes To inhibit gene expression
3D Printing or rapid prototyping