Monocots Vs Dicots-Difference

Difference between Monocotyledons (Monocots) and Dicotyledons (Dicots)

Differences between monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species are given below.

Criteria Monocots Dicots
Seed structure Basic terms related to seed structure are as follows:

  • Seed Coat
  • Endosperm
  • Embryo
  • Cotyledon
  • Epicotyl and Hypocotyl
  • Radicle
  • Plumule
  • Coleoptile

Monocots and dicots differ for some of these.

Have one cotyledon i.e. only one embryonic first leaf. This one cotyledon is thin, as endosperm to feed the germinating plant is not stored inside this cotyledon. Have two cotyledons i.e. two leaves inside seed coat of a germinating seed. These two cotyledons are fat, as they serve as store house for the endosperm, to feed the germinating seed.
Leaves Monocots have leaves with parallel primary veins (parallel vein network). Most of the times they have long and narrow leaves. Dicots have leaves with distinct / branched vein network. Dicots posses’ variety when it comes to shape and size of leaves.
Stem and Vascular system In monocots, vascular cambium is absent and vascular bundles are scattered. Because of this, monocots are not able to form annual rings of hardened tissue (wood), as a result of this they do not have woody, strong stems. Most of the times stems are unbranched. In dicots, vascular cambium is present and vascular bundles are in ring. So mostly they have strong, woody and branched stems.
Roots Monocots have fibrous / adventitious root system. Roots grow out from shoot tissue near the base. As the first root emerging from germinating seed dies, monocots fail to form central, strong tap root system. Dicots have branching roots with a strong, thick tap root (tap root system).
Flower parts / Stamen / Pollen Grain Monocots have flowers (flower parts) with multiples of three petals. Many of the times sepals and petals have same color, giving flower a six petal look. Often number of stamens equal to the number of petals. Monocots have pollen grains with one aperture (slit). Dicots have flowers (flower parts) with multiples of four or five petals. They have pollen grains with three apertures (slits).
Fruits / Seedpod / Seeds Monocots generally have large, fleshy seeds. Fruits or seedpods are generally comprised of three parts. Dicots posses’ variety when it comes to size and shape of fruits / seedpods / seeds. Generally they have greater number of seeds per seedpod as compared to monocots.
Germination and Growth Germinating monocot seed gives out single embryonic leaf i.e. cotyledon. Germinating dicot seed gives out two embryonic leaves i.e. cotyledons.

To know definition and examples of monocots and dicots visit the page Monocot – Dicot – Examples