Prokaryotic cell Vs Eukaryotic cell

Criteria Prokaryotic cell Eukaryotic cell
Size Mostly 1 to 10µm Mostly 10 to 100µm
Multicellular forms Rare Common
Nucleus Nucleoid region (No real nucleus) Real nucleus with double membrane.
Cytoplasmic membrane Cytoplasmic membrane is only unit membrane system of majority of prokaryotes. Internal compartmentalization by unit membrane system is absent. Presence of a multiplicity of unit membrane systems within, is a characteristic property of eukaryotic cell. Many of internal unit membranes are structurally different from cytoplasmic membranes.
Cytoplasmic membrane of prokaryotes constitutes a much more selective barrier between cell and external environment than does membrane of eukaryote cell. Cytoplasmic membrane of eukaryotes is less selective barrier than prokaryotic cytoplasmic membrane.
In many prokaryotes cytoplasmic membrane perform a role in energy yielding metabolism. Eukaryotic plasma membrane never perform a role in energy yielding metabolism.
Exocytosis and Endocytosis Absent.
Hence it lacks biological properties that are dependent on the capacity for endocytosis. Ex. Ability to perform intracellular digestion. To harbor cellular endosymbiots.
Respiration Among aerobic bacteria, respiratory electron transport system is incorporated into cell membrane. Machinery of respiration is incorporated into the inner membrane of mitochondrion
Cell membrane Sterols are not found in significant amount in the cell membrane of prokaryote. Cell membrane contains sterols.
Cell wall Except for mycoplasma, thick cell wall is always present, which contains amino sugars and muramic acid. Not always present, if present, contains simple substances like cellulose, mannose, xylans.
Cell division Binary fission (simple division) Mitosis and Meiosis
DNA Double stranded, circular or linear Linear, double stranded.
Histone DNA never associated with histone proteins. DNA associated with histone
Ribosomes 70S type (50S+30S) 80s type (60S+40S)
Protein synthesis Starting amino acid in protein synthesis – methionine Starting amino acid in protein synthesis – N-formylmethionine.
Amount of genetic information Less by several orders of magnitude than contained in eukaryotes Much more than prokaryotes.
Changes in Chromosome During cell cycle chromosome never undergoes changes of length, thickness by coiling. Chromosome undergoes changes of length, thickness by coiling during cell cycle.
Cell movement Flagella Flagella and cilia containing microtubules; lamellipodia and filopodia containing actin
Flagella Simple in structure. Complicated in structure, consisting of 2 central and nine peripheral double fibrils.
Means of reproduction Most prokaryotes normally exist and reproduce by asexual means in the haploid state (diploid state may occur but rarely.) Diploidy is the character of many groups of eukaryotes